Working principle and classification of aluminum extrusion press
An aluminum extrusion machine is a machine that uses a hydraulic system to extrude heated aluminum rods or plates into the desired shape.
It is widely used in construction, transportation, aviation, electronics and other fields, and is the main equipment for manufacturing various aluminum profiles.
The development of aluminum extrusion presses can be traced back to the late 19th century.
When German Joseph Bramah invented the first hydraulic extrusion press for making lead pipes.
With the advancement of technology and market demand, aluminum extrusion machines continue to improve and innovate.
From the initial manual operation to the current automated control, from a single horizontal type to a variety of vertical types.
From low-speed normal temperature extrusion to high-speed extrusion.
Super hot extrusion, from small ones of a few hundred tons to super large ones of tens of thousands of tons.
Aluminum extrusion machines have become an advanced equipment that is efficient, energy-saving and environmentally friendly.
This article aims to introduce the working principle and classification of aluminum extrusion machines and help readers learn more about aluminum extrusion machines.
How aluminum extrusion press works
The basic structure of an aluminum extrusion press mainly consists of three parts: extrusion head, hydraulic system and control system.
（1）The extrusion head is one of the most important parts of the aluminum profile extrusion machine.
It mainly consists of a mold, heater, pretreatment device and extrusion cavity.
The mold is used to form the required profile shape, the heater is used to heat the aluminum rod or plate.
The pretreatment device is used to remove oxide scale, apply lubricant, etc., and the extrusion cavity feeds the pretreated aluminum rod or plate into the mold. .
（2）The hydraulic system is one of the most important parts of the entire machine.
It mainly consists of a fuel tank, an oil pump, a high-pressure cylinder, a low-pressure cylinder, valves, pipelines, etc.
The oil tank stores hydraulic oil, and the oil pump sends the hydraulic oil to the high-pressure oil cylinder.
The high-pressure oil cylinder generates high pressure and is used to extrude aluminum rods or plates.
The low-pressure oil cylinder generates low pressure and is used to control various parts of the machine.
（3）The control system is mainly used to control the operation of the entire machine.
It is mainly composed of PLC controller, human-machine interface, electrical components, etc.
The PLC controller is used to automatically control the machine, the human-machine interface is used to operate and monitor the operation of the machine.
And the electrical components include sensors, relays, etc.
The working process of the aluminum extrusion machine mainly includes the following steps:
Heating: Put the aluminum rod or plate into the heater and heat it to the appropriate temperature (generally 300-500℃) to make it soft and plastic.
Feeding: The heated aluminum rod or plate is sent to the pretreatment device for removal of oxide scale, application of lubricant, etc., and then sent to the extrusion cavity.
Pretreatment: In the extrusion cavity, the aluminum rod or plate is pre-extruded to make it fit closely with the mold, eliminate air and impurities, and reduce extrusion resistance and defects.
Extrusion: Start the hydraulic system to generate high pressure from the high-pressure oil cylinder to push the aluminum rod or plate through the mold to form the required profile shape.
Cutting: The extruded profile is fed into the cutting device for cutting, and divided into predetermined lengths and specifications.
The working characteristics of the aluminum extrusion press mainly include the following points:
Efficient: Aluminum extrusion machines can produce large quantities of high-quality aluminum profiles in a short time to meet market demand.
Energy saving: Aluminum extrusion machines can take advantage of the high efficiency and low energy consumption of the hydraulic system.
Reducing power consumption and costs.
Environmental protection: The aluminum extrusion machine can utilize the recycling and filtration of hydraulic oil to reduce waste oil emissions and pollution.
Flexible: The aluminum extrusion machine can produce aluminum profiles of various shapes and sizes by changing different molds to adapt to different applications.
Classification of aluminum extrusion machines
According to different standards, aluminum extrusion machines can be divided into the following types:
It is divided into horizontal type and vertical type according to the extrusion direction.
The horizontal type means that the aluminum rod or aluminum plate is extruded in the horizontal direction.
And the vertical type means that the aluminum rod or aluminum plate is extruded in the vertical direction.
The advantages of the horizontal type are simple structure, convenient operation, and easy maintenance.
The disadvantages are large floor space, large impact of gravity, and large profile deformation.
The advantages of the vertical type are small floor space, small impact of gravity, and small profile deformation.
The disadvantages are complex structure, difficult operation, and difficult maintenance.
According to the extrusion force, it is divided into small (less than 1,000 tons), medium (1,000-5,000 tons), large (5,000-10,000 tons) and ultra-large (more than 10,000 tons).
The extrusion force refers to the maximum thrust that the aluminum extrusion machine can produce.
Which determines the cross-sectional area and wall thickness of the profiles that the aluminum extrusion machine can produce.
Generally speaking, the greater the extrusion force, the larger and more complex the profiles that can be produced.
The small one is suitable for producing small and simple profiles, such as window frames, door frames, etc.
Medium-sized ones are suitable for producing profiles of medium size and complexity, such as pipes, angle steel, etc.
Large ones are suitable for producing large and complex profiles, such as car bodies, bridges, etc.
Extra large ones are suitable for the production of extra large and special profiles, such as rockets, airplanes, etc.
According to the extrusion speed, it is divided into low speed (0.1-1 m/min), medium speed (1-10 m/min) and high speed (10-100 m/min).
The extrusion speed refers to the moving speed of the aluminum rod or plate when passing through the die.
It determines the production efficiency and product quality of the aluminum extrusion machine.
Generally speaking, the faster the extrusion speed, the higher the production efficiency, but the product quality may be reduced.
According to extrusion temperature, it is divided into normal temperature, hot extrusion and super hot extrusion.
Room temperature extrusion refers to extrusion at room temperature and is generally used to produce low-strength.
High-plasticity aluminum alloy profiles, such as pure aluminum, aluminum-lithium, etc.
Hot extrusion refers to extrusion at a temperature of 300-500°C.
It is generally used to produce aluminum alloy profiles with medium to high strength and medium to low plasticity.
Such as aluminum-magnesium, aluminum-zinc, etc. Super hot extrusion refers to extrusion at temperatures above 500°C.
It is generally used to produce high-strength, low-plasticity aluminum alloy profiles, such as aluminum titanium, aluminum boron, etc.
According to different classification standards, various types of aluminum extrusion machines have their own characteristics and scope of application.
For example, horizontal aluminum extrusion machines are suitable for producing large-section and long-length profiles;
vertical aluminum extrusion machines are suitable for producing small-section and small-length profiles;
small aluminum extrusion machines are suitable for producing window frames, For simple profiles such as door frames
Ultra-large aluminum extrusion machines are suitable for producing special profiles such as rockets and airplanes;
low-speed aluminum extrusion machines are suitable for producing profiles with high quality and precision requirements
And high-speed aluminum extrusion machines are suitable for It is suitable for producing profiles with low quality requirements and high efficiency requirements;
normal temperature extrusion is suitable for producing pure aluminum and other soft alloy profiles.
And super hot extrusion is suitable for producing aluminum and titanium and other hard alloy profiles.
Through the introduction of this article, we can understand the working principle and classification of aluminum extrusion machines.
An aluminum extrusion press is a machine that uses a hydraulic system to extrude heated aluminum rods or plates into the desired shape.
It is mainly composed of three parts: an extrusion head, a hydraulic system and a control system.
According to different standards, aluminum extrusion machines can be divided into horizontal and vertical types.
Small and super large, low speed and high speed, normal temperature and super heat.
Different types of aluminum extrusion machines have different characteristics and application ranges.
It is necessary to choose the appropriate aluminum extrusion machine according to different needs.
Aluminum extrusion machines have the advantages of high efficiency, energy saving, environmental protection.
And flexibility, but they also have some limitations, such as complex structure, difficult operation, and difficult maintenance.
Therefore, continuous improvements and innovations are needed to improve the performance and quality of aluminum extrusion machines.
Looking to the future, with the advancement of technology and market demand.
Aluminum extrusion machines will have more development directions and trends, such as intelligence, digitization, modularization, etc.