What is the design and manufacturing process for extrusion die?

An extrusion die is a mold used to extrude thermoplastic or hot-melt materials into desired shapes, such as plastic, rubber, metal, etc.
The design and manufacturing of extrusion die are key factors affecting the quality and efficiency of extrusion products.
It is necessary to consider the rheology, temperature, pressure, flow channel shape, die opening size, and other parameters of the material.
As well as the material, process, equipment, and other conditions of the mold.

Design of extrusion die

Design parameters and influencing factors of extrusion die:

Rheology: The rheology of a material refers to its deformation and flow characteristics when subjected to shear force
Which affects its flow uniformity and stability in the mold.
Temperature: Temperature is an important factor affecting the rheology and extrusion effect of the material.
It is necessary to reasonably control the temperature distribution and temperature gradient of the mold according to the melting point.
Thermal stability, and thermal conductivity of the material.
Pressure: Pressure is the driving force for material flow.
It is necessary to reasonably set the pressure distribution and pressure loss of the mold according to the viscosity, density, flow resistance, and other characteristics of the material.


Runner shape: The runner shape refers to the cross-sectional shape of the channel for material flow in the mold.
Which affects its flow speed and direction in the mold, as well as the strength and stiffness of the mold.
Die size: The die size refers to the cross-sectional size at the exit of the mold
Which determines the shape and size of the extruded product, as well as the flow speed and direction of the material.

Design methods and steps of extrusion die:

Mathematical modeling:

Mathematical modeling refers to using mathematical equations or formulas to describe physical quantities such as rheology.
Temperature, and pressure of materials, as well as geometric quantities such as the flow channel shape and die opening size of the mold.
To establish a mathematical model of the mold.

Numerical simulation:

Numerical simulation refers to using computer software or programs to solve mathematical models to obtain the flow field.
Temperature field, pressure field, and other distributions of the mold, as well as the shape, size, stress, and strain.
And other characteristics of the extruded product, and to evaluate the performance of the mold. Analysis and evaluation.

Optimization algorithm:

Optimization algorithm refers to using mathematical or computer methods to find optimal or approximately optimal mold design parameters.
So that the performance of the mold can be optimal or meet certain constraints.
Such as minimizing pressure loss, temperature gradient, and stress concentration. wait.

Design examples and results of extrusion die:

T-type die:

T-type die is a commonly used flat plate or film extrusion die.
Its flow channel is shaped like the letter T and consists of a feed section, a diverting section, an extension section, and a die opening.
The design of the T-shaped mold needs to consider the rheology, temperature, pressure, and other parameters of the material.
As well as the width, thickness, curvature, and angle.
And other geometric quantities of the flow channel to achieve uniform flow of material and uniform thickness of the extruded product.

Clothes hanger type mold:

The clothes hanger type mold is an improved flat plate or film extrusion die.
Its flow channel shape is similar to that of a clothes hanger and consists of a feed section.
A diverting section, an extension section, and a die opening.
The design advantage of the hanger-type mold is that it can reduce the curvature and angle of the flow channel and increase the width and thickness of the flow channel.
Thereby reducing the flow resistance and temperature gradient of the material, improving the flow uniformity of the material and the quality of the extruded product.

Manufacturing of extrusion die

Manufacturing materials and properties of extrusion die:

Steel: Steel is a commonly used extrusion die manufacturing material. It has good strength, stiffness, wear resistance, and corrosion resistance, but it also has shortcomings such as low thermal conductivity, large thermal expansion, and high processing difficulty.
Aluminum: Aluminum is a lightweight extrusion die manufacturing material. It has the advantages of good thermal conductivity, small thermal expansion, and easy processing. However, it also has shortcomings such as low strength, poor stiffness, and poor wear resistance.
Alloy: An alloy is an extrusion die manufacturing material that improves the properties of steel or aluminum by adding other elements, such as chromium, nickel, molybdenum, etc., which can improve its strength, stiffness, wear resistance, and corrosion resistance.

The manufacturing process and equipment of extrusion die:

Cutting: Cutting is an extrusion die manufacturing process that removes excess material and forms the required geometric shape by cutting or scraping the material with a tool, such as turning, milling, drilling, etc. Cutting equipment includes lathes, milling machines, drilling machines, etc.
Grinding: Grinding is an extrusion die manufacturing process that uses abrasives to rub materials to remove tiny materials and improve surface accuracy and smoothness, such as surface grinding, cylindrical grinding, internal and external cylindrical grinding, etc. Grinding equipment includes surface grinders, cylindrical grinders, internal and external cylindrical grinders, etc.
Electric spark: Electric spark is an extrusion die manufacturing process that uses electrodes to discharge materials, and uses the high temperature generated by the electric spark to melt or vaporize the material to form the required geometric shape, such as wire EDM and EDM perforation. , EDM milling, etc. EDM equipment includes wire EDM machines, EDM punchers, EDM milling machines, etc.
Laser: Laser is an extrusion die manufacturing process that irradiates materials with laser beams and uses the high energy generated by the laser beam to melt or vaporize the material to form the required geometric shape, such as laser cutting, laser drilling, laser Engraving, etc. Laser equipment includes laser cutting machines, laser drilling machines, laser engraving machines, etc.
Heat treatment: Heat treatment is an extrusion die manufacturing process that changes the structure and performance of materials by heating, preserving, and cooling them, such as quenching, tempering, annealing, normalizing, etc. Heat treatment equipment includes heat treatment furnaces, quenching pools, cooling towers, etc.

Quality control of extrusion die

Material selection of the mold:

The material of the mold should have good strength, stiffness, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, thermal conductivity, and thermal stability to adapt to the high temperature, high pressure, and high-speed conditions of extrusion. Commonly used mold materials include steel, aluminum, alloys, etc. The specific material type and grade should be selected based on extrusion materials, temperature, pressure, speed, and other factors.

Mold design optimization:

The design of the mold should consider parameters such as extrusion rheology, temperature, pressure, runner shape, die opening size, etc., to achieve uniform flow of material and uniform thickness of the extruded product. Mold design methods and steps should use mathematical modeling, numerical simulation, optimization algorithms, etc. to improve the performance and efficiency of the mold.

Mold processing accuracy:

The mold processing accuracy directly affects the quality of extruded products and the life of the mold. High-precision processing equipment and processes, such as cutting, grinding, EDM, laser, etc., should be used to ensure the size and shape of the mold. , accuracy and surface quality meet design requirements and quality standards.

The heat treatment process of the mold:

The heat treatment process of the mold is an important means to improve the performance and life of the mold. Appropriate heat treatment processes and equipment should be selected according to the material and structure of the mold, such as quenching, tempering, annealing, normalizing, etc., to improve the mold’s organizational structure and performance.

Mold testing method:

The mold testing method is an important link to ensure the quality and performance of the mold. Advanced testing instruments and methods should be used, such as size testing, shape testing, accuracy testing, surface testing, hardness testing, strength testing, etc., to ensure mold meets design requirements and quality standards.

in conclusion

The design and manufacturing of extrusion die are key factors affecting the quality and efficiency of extrusion products.
It is necessary to comprehensively consider the rheology, temperature, pressure, flow channel shape, and die opening size.
And other parameters of the material, as well as the material, process, equipment, and other conditions of the mold.
The methods and steps for the design and manufacturing of extrusion die include mathematical modeling.
Numerical simulation, optimization algorithm, cutting, grinding, EDM, laser, heat treatment, etc., to improve the performance and efficiency of the mold.

Advantages and limitations of extrusion die design and manufacturing include:

Advantages:

It can achieve the uniform flow of materials and uniform thickness of extruded products, improve the quality and performance of extruded products, reduce energy consumption and costs of extrusion, extend the service life of the mold, and expand the application scope and innovation space of extrusion.

Limitations:

It requires high-precision processing equipment and technology, increases the difficulty and cost of mold manufacturing, requires complex mathematical models and computer software, increases mold design time and errors, requires continuous testing and optimization, and increases mold maintenance and updates. frequency.

Future developments and trends in the design and manufacturing of extrusion dies include:

Development:

Use new materials, processes, equipment, software, etc. to improve the level and effect of mold design and manufacturing, such as using high-strength, high thermal conductivity, and high wear-resistant alloy materials, and adopting high-speed, high-precision, and highly automated processing Equipment, using intelligent, cloud, big data software platforms, etc.

Trend:

Combined with the needs and characteristics of extrusion, develop more mold types and forms, such as multi-layer co-extrusion molds, micro-hole extrusion molds, variable cross-section extrusion molds, etc., to achieve more extrusion functions and effects, Such as enhancing the structure and performance of extruded products, realizing micro and nano-scale extruded products, and realizing diversification and personalization of extruded products.

Scroll to Top
× How can I help you?